Andrew Murdoch joined the UK Royal Navy in 1990 and after initial naval training he obtained a BSc degree at Durham University, before returning to the navy to commence appointments both ashore and at sea. Selected to become a naval lawyer in 1998 he qualified as a barrister at Middle Temple in 2000 and practiced at the Chambers of Michael Lawson QC for a year where he specialised in criminal law. On returning to naval duties in 2001, he served as the Assistant Chief Naval Judge Advocate, prosecuting and defending at courts-martial, before joining HMS YORK (a destroyer) in 2003 where he saw service during the Iraq conflict. After 2 years as the legal advisor to all naval training establishments and Portsmouth Naval Base, he advised Fleet naval units as the Deputy Fleet Legal Advisor. During these appointments he deployed to support maritime operations in the Middle-East and the evacuation from Lebanon. He was selected for promotion to Commander in 2007 and then spent a year at University College London where he obtained an LLM (Public International Law) and was awarded the Georg Schwarzenberger Prize in International Law by the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies for performance in international law. In 2008 he went to Bahrain as the Coalition Maritime Force/UK Maritime Component Commander legal adviser. During this time he assisted in negotiating arrangements for the transfer of suspect pirates to Kenya, and drafted the template guidance for ships gathering evidence for transfer to regional states. In 2009 he joined the staff of the Director of Naval Legal Services as the RN’s principal source of advice on international law where he was involved in creating a Freedom of navigation system. He is the author of the RN’s legal guidance to Commanding Officers on Maritime Security Operations and has written several articles on matters of international law. He joined the UK’s Foreign Office legal advisers in 2011.